ILO Conventions and Recommendations ILO Conventions and Recommendations on child labour A majority of countries have adopted legislation to prohibit or place severe restrictions on the employment and work of children, much of it stimulated and guided by standards adopted by the International Labour Organization ILO.
According to International Labour Organization, child labour is the important source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the number of Pakistani working children to be around millions, out of which, at least, half the children are under the age of ten years.
It is therefore, essential to break this vicious cycle and hence, enable the society to produce healthy citizens. Since this practice has complex web of causation, a multidisciplinary approach is required The complex issue of child labour combat this issue through proposed recommendations.
He supported his family in paying off old loans which his family had taken years ago from their village landlord in order to survive.
However, he was never told who in his family had borrowed the money or how much. His parents came to visit him and to collect the money from the owner of the factory for whom Haneef worked, but he never knew the amount or how long he would have to continue working. Any time he made an error in his work, for which he was charged and consequently, the load of the debt increased.
Once, when his work was considered too slow, he was badly beaten. This paper analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for the life of children, in specific, and for the nation, in general.
Amongst many, one of the factors that helps us to judge quality of a life of any society is "How well it cares for its children". Child labour is a phenomenon pervasive mostly in the transitional societies of the developing economies which is embedded with the social stratification system.
Working children in these countries in general are subjected to abuse characterized by low wages, long hours of work, unclean, unhygienic and unsafe working and living conditions and more importantly denial of education which hamper their physical and mental development.
According to an ILO a report, more than 2 million children are found engaged in domestic labour in South Africa,in Brazil,in Haiti,in Kenya,in Sri Lanka,in Bangladesh and ,00 in Pakistan.
Countries like the United States had also declared a child protection emergency in Who would lead Pakistan in the 22nd century? In the light of the current situation it seems important to examine the issues with reference to possible and doable solutions in order to address the issue of child labour and ensure a healthy nation.
Introduction to Framework Before analyzing the determinants, it is important to have the brief over view of the model that is used as framework for in-depth analysis of the issue.
The model was introduced by Clemen-stone, McGuire in If there are changes in any one component, the balance of health is altered in the community setting. Moreover, it would be a stepping stone to sensitize stakeholders towards this most ignored issue.
Determinants of Child Labour Psycho-socio-cultural: Keeping in mind that South East Asia is amongst the fastest growing economies in the region, it has a high poverty level.
It is also debated that poverty is not the only cause of child labour, but discrimination on the basis of caste, gender, tribal, religious reasons or school system are also contributing factors.
In the case of bonded labour the child is released only when the guardian pays off the debt or makes a lump sum payment to the employer as the parents or the family of the child have meager borrowing sources in the form of governmental loans or micro financing facilities to resolve such cases.
In addition to this, the deficient economic framework of the country for the less privileged class lays the grounds for child labour; hence, inhibiting children from attending schools, and growing into illiterate adults working on meagerly paid jobs.
The inadequate schooling system also adds fuel to the fire, as parents feel that it is better to make their children work and learn home based skills than to send them to schools which are overcrowded, poor in sanitation and have dismal teaching. This lack of effective education system and availability of functional schools are both causes and consequences of child labour.
Due to illiteracy, working conditions for these children gets worse as they are not even aware of the occupational benefits. There exist laws formulated by the Government of Pakistan, both as part of its constitution and at other organizational levels, clearly mentioning, that forced labour resulting in disability or kidnapping, sexual abuse, and torture is severely punishable with maximum penalty up to life imprisonment.
Apart from the constitution, such laws are also a part of other organizational laws, such as Factories Act, ; West Pakistan Shops and Establishment Ordinance; The Employee Children Act, ; The Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, ; and the Punjab Compulsory Education Act ,12 but the most crucial problem is the implementation of these laws; and as ordinances.
The so called enforcing agencies have failed to effectively enforce these laws; as a result, this issue of child labour still remains unresolved. Another indicator of negligence by the concerned agencies is that there is no enforcement data available: Pakistan still lacks an effective management information system related to child labour which could provide reliable quantitative information on the number of working children.
Regarding child labour legislation, "Articles 3, 1117 1 and 37 C are there in the Constitution of Pakistan to ensure removal of child labour. In an economy where there is a struggle to compete by reducing labour cost, child labour prevails.
According to the findings of a recent survey conducted at Peshawar, it was revealed that children among which were working in automobile workshops for hours without any safety measures.
Most of the children working in this industry are aged between years15 which is certainly not an appropriate age for performing these sorts of stressful jobs. These children were found to be suffering from health problems due to working in unsafe, polluted environments for long time durations which led to their ill health.
Children are considered delicate and biologically vulnerable, particularly when they are exposed to several unsafe working conditions. A variety of specific hazards can be found in a single workplace. Some of them can be specific to the occupation e. It has also to be taken into account that children perform different tasks than adults in the same occupation and, therefore their exposure to hazardous agents may vary as well.
For example, the variations that exist in the health and nutritional status of children from different social and cultural environments may influence exposure and modify response to chemicals.Bickering ex-lovers bring unique twist to issue of child support Multimillionaire Kenneth Hill claims that his aboriginal status should exclude him from Ontario’s Family Law Act, which applies.
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As a direct result of Tory Councillors voting to close the local Town centre Bureau Heanor and Loscoe Town Council have had to issue the following press release. Child Labour is the practice of having children engage in economic activity, on a part- or full-time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood, and is .