However, today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule, often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. You can help by adding to it. December Pre-studio era[ edit ] Prior to the decline of the Motion Picture Patents Company Edison Trust inthere were two main forms of film distribution:
Gerben Bakker, University of Essex Introduction Like other major innovations such as the automobile, electricity, chemicals and the airplane, cinema emerged in most Western countries at the same time. As the first form of industrialized mass-entertainment, it was all-pervasive.
From the s onwards, each year billions of cinema-tickets were sold and consumers who did not regularly visit the cinema became a minority.
In Italy, today hardly significant in international entertainment, the film industry was the fourth-largest export industry before the First World War.
In the depression-struck U. Despite this economic significance, despite its rapid emergence and growth, despite its pronounced effect on the everyday life of consumers, and despite its importance as an early case of the industrialization of services, the economic history of the film industry has hardly been examined.
This article will limit itself exclusively to the economic development of the industry. It will discuss just a few countries, mainly the U.
This entry cannot do justice to developments in each and every country, given the nature of an encyclopedia article. This entry also limits itself to the evolution of the Western film industry, because it has been and still is the largest film industry in the world, in revenue terms, although this may well change in the future.
Before Cinema In the late eighteenth century most consumers enjoyed their entertainment in an informal, haphazard and often non-commercial way. When making a trip they could suddenly meet a roadside entertainer, and their villages were often visited by traveling showmen, clowns and troubadours.
Seasonal fairs attracted a large variety of musicians, magicians, dancers, fortune-tellers and sword-swallowers.
Only a few large cities harbored legitimate theaters, strictly regulated by the local and national rulers. This world was torn apart in two stages. First, most Western countries started to deregulate their entertainment industries, enabling many more entrepreneurs to enter the business and make far larger investments, for example in circuits of fixed stone theaters.
Most European countries followed during the nineteenth century. Britain, for example, deregulated in the mids, and France in the late s. The result of this was that commercial, formalized and standardized live entertainment emerged that destroyed a fair part of traditional entertainment. The combined effect of liberalization, innovation and changes in business organization, made the industry grow rapidly throughout the nineteenth century, and integrated local and regional entertainment markets into national ones.
By the end of the nineteenth century, integrated national entertainment industries and markets maximized productivity attainable through process innovations. Creative inputs, for example, circulated swiftly along the venues — often in dedicated trains — coordinated by centralized booking offices, maximizing capital and labor utilization.
At the end of the nineteenth century, in the era of the second industrial revolution, falling working hours, rising disposable income, increasing urbanization, rapidly expanding transport networks and strong population growth resulted in a sharp rise in the demand for entertainment.
The effect of this boom was further rapid growth of live entertainment through process innovations. At the turn of the century, the production possibilities of the existing industry configuration were fully realized and further innovation within the existing live-entertainment industry could only increase productivity incrementally.
At this moment, in a second stage, cinema emerged and in its turn destroyed this world, by industrializing it into the modern world of automated, standardized, tradable mass-entertainment, integrating the national entertainment markets into an international one.
Technological Origins In the early s, Thomas Edison introduced the kinematograph, which enabled the shooting of films and their play-back in slot-coin machines for individual viewing. Cinema reconfigured different technologies that all were available from the late s onwards: After the preconditions for motion pictures had been established, cinema technology itself was invented.
The scientist Jean Marey completed the first working model of a film camera in in Paris. Edison visited Georges Demeney in and saw his films. Inhe filed an American patent for a film camera, which had a different moving mechanism than the Marey camera.
Inthe Englishman Friese Green presented a working camera to a group of enthusiasts. In the Frenchman Demeney filed a patent for a camera. In December of that year they gave the first projection for a paying audience.
They were followed in February by the Englishman Robert W.Ken Dancyger is a Professor of Film and Television at Tisch School of the Arts at New York University, as well as the author of numerous books on screenwriting, editing, and production, including Alternative Scriptwriting (with Jeff Rush) and Writing the Short Film (with Patricia Cooper), The Director’s Idea and Global Scriptwriting, all published by .
Scott Mansfield, Founder and Managing Partner at Monterey Media, an independent distribution company that acquired Runoff at the LA Film Festival in , says most of the filmmakers he works with know very little about distribution.
“It’s a foreign world to them,” Mansfield says. Film distribution is the process of making a movie available for viewing by an audience.
This is normally the task of a professional film distributor, who would determine the marketing strategy for the film, the media by which a film is to be exhibited or made available for viewing, and who may set the release date and other matters.
There were many changes in marketing and distribution of films from end of the silent period to the modern digital period. There was a studio system that existed at the end of the silent period and collapsed in with a court ruling.
During this same time a sales era of marketing existed. Yet arguably, distribution is the most important part of the film industry, where completed films are brought to life and connected with an audience.
So what is involved in this invisible process? Distribution is about releasing and sustaining films in the market place.
Apple has given an eight-episode straight-to-series order to dramaDefending Jacob, headlined and executive produced by Captain America and The Avengers star Chris Evans.. Created and written by Mark Bomback (Planet of the Apes trilogy) based on William Landay’s bestselling novel, the limited series comes from Paramount .