Forms of substructure

The next concept—scale, proportion, and quantity—concerns the sizes of things and the mathematical relationships among disparate elements. The next four concepts—systems and system models, energy and matter flows, structure and function, and stability and change—are interrelated in that the first is illuminated by the other three.

Forms of substructure

Bridge Parts Structure, Components and Parts of Bridge Since the use of first simple bridges made from a single beam that had to endure all the forces of tension, compression, torsion and shear forces by itself, engineers and architects tried to develop new and better techniques for spanning the gaps between one point of terrain to another.

Eventually, the entire engineering field was formed, and dozens upon dozens of bridge designs were created utilizing many components, parts and brand new terminology that describe them.

Substructure | Define Substructure at

Three main bridge areas are Foundation, Substructure, and Superstructure. The components of the bridge are picked to fit not only its use case scenario pedestrian, highway, railway, transit or industrial bridges but also location on which it is built, the span between its main structural beams and their basic structure arch, beam, cantilever, cable-stayed, suspension or other.

Main components of the modern bridges are: Abutment — Endpoints of the bridge. They are reinforced so that they can endure intense lateral pressures.

Pile also known as beam, footing, and pier — Reinforced concrete post that is driven into the ground to serve as the leg or support for the bridge. The distance between piles is calculated so that is can support the rest of the structure that will be laid on top of them.

Cap — Cap sits on top of the pile beam, providing additional support and dispersing the load to the piles below. The combination of Pile and Cap elements is called Bent. Girder or Span — One of the main components of the bridge that connects all the Piles beams.

It can consist from multiple simple spans, a single continuous span that is supported by multiple beams, cantilever spans and cantilever spans with the suspended span between them. They are usually made from metal or reinforced concrete and also can be made in the form of haunches girded that can carry more load.

Girder sections are typically not made from a simple block of material but are made from truss network or Orthotropic beams that increases their resistance to load.

Forms of substructure

Girders can also be used as a part of rigid frame network where they are fully connected with frame legs which can be inclined or in V shape.

Superstructure truss network — Truss network that supports travel surface can be made in three basic ways — Deck truss where traffic flows on top of truss network, Pony truss where truss network flows between two parallel walls of trusses, and Through truss that adds additional cross-braced truss network above and below the traffic.

Deck beam — Simple continuous decks are made from metal or reinforced concrete. They consist from sub-components such as approach slab that part that connects main bridge decking with the ground on both sides of the bridgeexpansion joint, drainage scupper, curb, running surface, footpath.

Barriers — Sides of the bridge decks usually have additional barrier components such as railings, handrails and ground fixtures. Arch — Arches on the bridges are distinguished by the number of hinges they have usually between zero or three which determine how much stress and load they can safely carry, and the type of material they are constructed solid material, truss system.

Arches below the bridge are called spandrel-braced cantilever or Trussed deck arch. Arch bridges can also use suspension bridges where the arch is made from truss system tied arch, or bowstring bridge. Spandrel — Spandrels are the almost triangular space between the main pillar of the bridge and decking.

Truss — Framework made by connecting triangles and other forms that share load and stress forces across its entire structure.The components of the bridge are picked to fit not only its use case scenario (pedestrian, highway, railway, transit or industrial bridges) but also location on which it is built, the span between its main structural beams and their basic structure (arch, beam, cantilever, cable-stayed, suspension or other).

Substructure definition: a structure, pattern, etc, that forms the basis of anything | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. Newsletters. Learn about new products, programs and webinars that help you work smarter and catch up on the latest science news.

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Forms of substructure
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