A unique experiment This is an article taken from our China in Focus magazine written by Justin Crozier. Justin Crozier examines how China's Imperial examination system and its modern remnant - the Eight Legged Essay and the Gao Kao - are unique attempts in world history to aim for a government of wisdom. In "On a Chinese Screen", notes from his encounters during a journey on the Yangzi inSomerset Maugham relays his conversation with a great Confucian philosopher. The Chinese philosopher, who has studied in Berlin and Oxford, concludes that all wisdom is to be found within the Confucian canon.
This episode, amongst many others including instances revolving around president Jacob Zuma, revealed how the African National Congress as ruling political party utilized patronage to reward supporters and strengthen the leading faction of the party's control over governmental institutions.
Tammany boss William M. Tweed was an American politician who ran what is considered now to have been one of the most corrupt political machines in the country's history.
Tweed and his cronies ruled for a brief time with absolute power over the city and state of New York. Guiteaua disappointed office-seeker, assassinated him. To prevent further political violence and to assuage public outrage, Congress passed the Pendleton Act inwhich set up the Civil Service Commission.
Henceforth, applicants for most federal government jobs would have to pass an examination. Federal politicians' influence over bureaucratic appointments waned, and patronage declined as a national political issue. Democratic Organization of Cook Countyoccurred involving political patronage and its constitutionality.
Shakman claimed that much of the patronage going on in Chicago politics was unlawful on the grounds of the first and fourteenth amendments. Through a series of legal battle and negotiations, the two parties agreed upon The Shakman Decrees. Under these decrees it was declared that the employment status of most public employees could not be affected positively or negatively based on political allegiance, with exceptions for politically inclined positions.
The case is still in negotiation today, as there are points yet to be decided. In the United States, the U. Constitution provides the president with the power to appoint individuals to government positions. He or she also may appoint personal advisers without congressional approval.
Not surprisingly, these individuals tend to be supporters of the president. Similarly, at the state and local levels, governors and mayors retain appointments powers. Some scholars have argued that patronage may be used for laudable purposes, such as the "recognition" of minority communities through the appointment of their members to a high-profile positions.
Bearfield has argued that patronage be used for four general purposes: Many Barmakids were patrons of the sciences, which greatly helped the propagation of Indian science and scholarship from the neighbouring Academy of Gundishapur into the Arabic world.
They patronized scholars such as Gebir and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu. They are also credited with the establishment of the first paper mill in Baghdad. The power of the Barmakids in those times is reflected in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights ; the vizier Ja'far appears in several stories, as well as a tale that gave rise to the expression "Barmecide feast".China provides some of the earliest traces of music making.
These are mainly in the form of well-preserved musical instruments, the tangible evidence of music. Over several millennia, musical instruments from regional indigenous traditions as well as from India and Central and West Asia were assimilated into the mainstream of Chinese music.
China, with a very old and rich tradition in literature and the dramatic and visual arts, is the only country in the world with a literature written for more than 3, consecutive years. Early writings were derived from philosophical or religious essays such as the works of Confucius and Lao-tzu.
Art and Culture of China China National Day Cards China, one of the world's oldest civilizations, has its cultural roots that date back to over five thousand years. Desertification is one of the most important environmental challenges facing the world today, however it is arguably the most under-reported. Desertification is the gradual transformation of arable and habitable land into desert, usually caused by climate change and/or the improper use of land. BRIEF INTRODUCTION. China’s calligraphy is an ancient art and develops with the development of Chinese lausannecongress2018.com are indeed few peoples in this world who own such a special art, besides China’s calligraphy owns the long history and colorfulness.
art of china Jade is one of the touchest stones in the world, near the diamond because of overlapping fibers within the stone. Tons of pressure are needed to crush some of the larger pieces of jade 4 / Chinese art The Chinese culture is a very interesting topic to learn about.
They have many beliefs, customs and traditions that make them unique. Essays come in many forms. In this lesson, you'll learn all about a narrative essay, from its basic definition to the key characteristics that make for an engaging and effective essay.
Smithsonian Theaters. Featuring IMAX®, state-of-the-art 35mm film presentations, and the Einstein Planetarium. Ancient Chinese Art – Essay Sample Through out the ancient Chinese history which is divided into periods by technology and the ruling dynasties, the Chinese have developed an extremely diverse collection of art work; art work from this region predating the era when history writing began has been found by archeologists.