The nation is comprised of 50 states, a federal district and several self-governing territories that form a federal republic.
Open Access Overview Focusing on open access to peer-reviewed research articles and their preprints This is an introduction to open access OA for those who are new to the concept. I hope it's short enough to read, long enough to be useful, and organized to let you skip around and dive into detail only where you want detail.
It doesn't cover every nuance or answer every objection. But for those who read it, it should cover enough territory to prevent the misunderstandings that delayed progress in our early days.
If this overview is still too long, then see my very brief introduction to OA. The book home page includes links to OA editions and a continually growing collection of updates and supplements.
I welcome your comments and suggestions. Peter Suber Open-access OA literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. OA removes price barriers subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per-view fees and permission barriers most copyright and licensing restrictions.
There is some flexibility about which permission barriers to remove. For example, some OA providers permit commercial re-use and some do not. Some permit derivative works and some do not. But all of the major public definitions of OA agree that merely removing price barriers, or limiting permissible uses to "fair use" "fair dealing" in the UKis not enough.
Here's how the Budapest Open Access Initiative put it: By 'open access' to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.
The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
For a work to be OA, the copyright holder must consent in advance to let users "copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship Sometimes I refer to them collectively, or to their common ground, as the BBB definition.
When we need to refer unambiguously to sub-species of OA, we can borrow terminology from the kindred movement for free and open-source software.
Gratis OA removes price barriers alone, and libre OA removes price barriers and at least some permission barriers as well. Gratis OA is free of charge, but not free of copyright of licensing restrictions.
Users must either limit themselves to fair use or seek permission to exceed it. Libre OA is free of charge and expressly permits uses beyond fair use. To adapt Richard Stallman's famous formulation originally applied to softwaregratis OA is free as in beer, while libre OA is also free as in speech.
In addition to removing access barriers, OA should be immediate, rather than delayed, and should apply to full texts, not just abstracts or summaries. OA is compatible with copyrightpeer reviewrevenue even profitprint, preservation, prestigequalitycareer-advancement, indexing, and other features and supportive services associated with conventional scholarly literature.
The primary difference is that the bills are not paid by readers and hence do not function as access barriers. The legal basis of OA is the consent of the copyright holder for newer literature or the expiration of copyright for older literature. Because OA uses copyright-holder consent or the expiration of copyright, it does not require the reform, abolition, or infringement of copyright law.
One easy, effective, and increasingly common way for copyright holders to manifest their consent to OA is to use one of the Creative Commons licenses.
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Many other open-content licenses will also work. Copyright holders could also compose their own licenses or permission statements and attach them to their works though there are good reasons not to do so without legal advice.
When copyright holders consent to OA, what are they consenting to? Usually they consent in advance to the unrestricted reading, downloading, copying, sharing, storing, printing, searching, linking, and crawling of the full-text of the work. Most authors choose to retain the right to block the distribution of mangled or misattributed copies.In this trading video lesson, I show you how I make money trading GOLD using the 'fakey price action chart pattern' and I discuss a potential trade setup I see setting up on the GOLD chart.
The easiest way to upgrade to the latest iPhone. Join the iPhone Upgrade Program to get the latest iPhone every year, low monthly payments, and AppleCare+. The IT Skeptic is the pseudonym of Rob England, an IT consultant and commentator. Rob is the newsletter editor for itSMFnz, the professional body for IT Service Management (ITIL) practitioners.
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In the gold specie standard the monetary unit is associated with the value of circulating gold coins, or the monetary unit has the value of a certain circulating gold coin, but other coins may be made of less.
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