Cognition clinic and memory clinic of a public hospital in Hong Kong. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve and regression analyses. A score of less than 22 should prompt further diagnostic assessment.
Life expectancy is increasing across the planet, with population aging rising the most rapidly in the low- and middle-income countries, where the prevalence of dementia is therefore expected to increase.
It is either similar in men and women or slightly higher in women. Annual age-specific rates ranged from 0.
Protective factors represent the converse. An observed risk factor does not necessarily cause disease; a protective factor does not necessarily prevent disease and almost certainly will not treat the disease. The observed effects can potentially reflect selection or survival bias or confounding, or sometimes reverse causality.
They may also depend on the timing and duration of exposure to the factor, with mid-life often being the critical period. Demographic risk factors Increasing age is not only the strongest risk factor for dementia, but also the only risk factor consistently identified after the eighth decade of life.
While prevalence is consistently higher among women, incidence is not; thus, the higher prevalence may largely be a function of longer life-expectancy in women. Lower educational levels have been found associated with higher prevalence. Within the US, prevalence has been reported as elevated in African American and Latino populations; some authors have attributed these findings to lower education and higher cardiovascular morbidity in those populations.
Genetic factors Few dementias are caused by deterministic autosomal dominant genes; these are discussed later under the specific disorders. It is neither necessary nor sufficient for diagnosis, and its effect on risk appears to wear off by the eighth decade, i.
Medical risk factors Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as not just a risk factor for vascular dementia but also for degenerative dementias, particularly AD. Recurrent major depression in earlier adulthood appears to increase risk of dementia in later life.
Education may also reflect general socioeconomic status and thus also represent quality of environmental factors like nutrition, or health care.
Regardless of mechanism, higher education is associated with lower prevalence of dementia. Lifelong occupations that do not require higher education or skilled vocational training appear to be associated with a higher risk of dementia.
However, in clinical trials, these drugs have not been found to prevent dementia. Timing and duration of the exposure might partly explain these discrepancies, as the protective effects were seen with prolonged use multiple years before dementia onset.
While some studies have found a protective relationship with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs697071 a meta-analysis determined that many of the positive results seen in the 25 studies reviewed were due to various forms of bias.
In other cases, neither patient nor caregiver report concerns but may acknowledge them if asked.Dementia is the name for a group of symptoms caused by disorders that affect the brain.
It is not a specific disease. People with dementia may not be able to think well enough to do normal activities, such as getting dressed or eating. Survivors of critical illness often have a prolonged and disabling form of cognitive impairment that remains inadequately characterized.
Of the patients enrolled, 6% had cognitive impairment. OLDER PARTICIPANTS with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have an increased risk of developing dementia, especially Alzheimer disease.
1 Therefore, the proper identification of these individuals is important because they constitute a clinical entity that is suitable for therapeutic interventions. However, one of the problems in identifying risk factors for MCI is that there are several.
1. Development of guidelines on nutrition in dementia The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) launched a process of developing guidelines on nutrition.
modiﬁable risk factors for incident dementia in people with MCI. We deﬁned MCI as cognitive impairment identiﬁed Meta-Analysis Plot for Diabetes as Predictor of MCI Conversion to Alzheimer’s dementia; aMCI, amnestic mild cognitive impairment; Clin, clinical studies; D, any-cause dementia; Ep, epidemiological studies; MCI, mild.
The clinical and epidemiological studies will provide novel insights into the risk factors and biomarkers for dementia as well as patients for biomarker and interventional studies of cognitive decline and dementia.